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Sleeping Giant State Park is still under construction months after the tornado. The Public Works Lot is open weekdays, 7: Disposal for residents is free at any lot but private contractors performing debris removal and disposal services must use Hamden Trans-. A town disposal license is required for all commercial operators and can be purchased at the Hamden Public Works HQ, located at Shepard Avenue. The SGPA has continuously kept residents up-to-date about this process as well as fundraisers that have been ongoing since the disaster through their Facebook page. Although constant efforts are being made, there is still no clear sign as to when the park will be reopened.

In the meantime, now that the weather will be cooler, there are plans to seed the now cleared areas. For obvious reasons, thousands of footsteps on newly sown grass would not be helpful. Flu vaccines will take place on Thursday, Sept. Grad school info session If you are thinking about graduate school, attend the session on Thursday, Sept. Attending this session will help answer all of your questions whether they be about the application process, interviews or more.

Students will come together to one day put an end to this disease. This fundraiser will be held Saturday, Sept. For more information visit www. Free items will be given to everyone who stops by. Interactive booths, free food, entertainment and awesome prizes will be available for all students to enjoy. The adventurous life of artist John Mulvany was on display Thursday, Sept.

His work represents the Irish immigrant experience in America, as well as the settlement of the West, secret societies, terrorism and love. Senior health science major Emily Alderman used to lived next to the Hunger Museum and decided to check out the event. Born in in County Meath, Ireland, Mulvany lived a life of struggle. His parents suffered greatly under English landlords, instilling his deep nationalist feelings. When his mother remarried a man with children, Mulvany realized he would not inherit any land. Then he made the trek to America with his brother.

Mulvany spent some time at the National Academy of Design in New York when he arrived before taking to portrait painting and becoming a sketch artist during the Civil War. Mulvany is praised for the realism in his pieces. In Ireland, Mulvany is known for his painting, The Battle of Aughrim, painted in and exhibited in Dublin in Throughout his career, Mulvany spent much time in Chicago, Washington D.

He depended on the kindness of his brother with whom he lived while he worked on rebuilding his career. Mulvany was also a lifelong member of Clan na Gael, an Irish secret society whose aim was Irish freedom from England. Weber said he narrowly escaped imprisonment by English authorities while researching uniforms for his Aughrim painting at the Tower of London.

Mulvany was warned to leave before the tower was bombed by the Fenian dynamite campaign, orchestrated by Irish republicans against the British Empire. Mulvany convinced Heinz to commission him to duplicate the painting, which he spent his last years creating. His death was declared a suicide by the press, however Mulvany battled throat cancer and alcoholism in his final years. Each year in the U. Something no one, especially a child should have to endure. Quinnipiac Tri Delta members attended the St. The 5k raised money for cancer research, so that one day down the road, there will not have to be a walk anymore.

Since partnering with St. They believe no family should ever have to worry about anything other than helping their. Members of Tri Delta participated in St. The Stamford, Connecticut hospital branch was not the only one hosting a walk. All of the St. It was so fun to meet other people who love St. This event will be a barbeque with lawn games on the Mount Carmel campus. The company has since fulfilled that role. Quinnipiac Chronicle Have a topic you are passionate about?

Write an opinion article for The Chronicle! Come to our meetings to find out more! Tuesday nights at 9: This rule bans any substance or masking agents that can give an unfair advantage to a player. With all that in mind, Gordon is a talent that should assist in reinvigorating the Patriots offense and hopefully elevating them to being one of the perennial contenders in the AFC.

From the Cleveland Browns perspective, they decided that the year-old Gordon was ultimately too unreliable as a talent to retain on the team for another week. It can be argued that he may not be as useful of a receiving weapon after delivering a disappointing one reception for 17 yards game week one against the Pittsburgh Steelers. For the Browns, they may not think that Gordon is a player worth having on their team. The Browns and the Patriots both have reasons for making the decision they made, but what I find myself most interested in is the perspective of Gordon himself.

In , he was viewed as one of the top tier talents at the wide receiver position in all of the NFL. In 14 games, he hauled in 87 receptions for 1, yards and nine touchdowns. During weeks 12 and 13, Gordon became the first player to finish with receiving yards in two consecutive games. He also led the league in yards and earned first team All-. All of these accomplishments occurred all while he was 22 years old.

Gordon has routinely committed wrongdoings in his use of drugs throughout his life without feeling that he will actually pay a price for his misconduct. These missteps have followed him since his days in high school, where he was expelled for marijuana possession. He still ended up attending Lamar High, competing in multiple sports while also remaining involved in a gang where he dealt drugs along with other illegal activities.

This was only the beginning of a string of times where Gordon did not suffer much consequence for his poor decisions. At Baylor University, Gordon was arrested and suspended for 13 games of his sophomore season. Gordon also spoke on how a coach at Baylor helped him cheat his drug tests so he could remain eligible to play, according to a feature with Uninterrupted in October Another time where Gordon did not pay a price for his actions and continued to viewed as a valuable piece to a school even with the baggage he carried with him.

Once he was drafted in the NFL, he resumed his pattern of harmful behavior. He missed most of the season until returning week 13, playing the final five weeks of the season. Coming into this year, Gordon received permission from the Browns organization to miss training camp so he could focus on his treatment plan. The Browns do this in hope he finishes a complete season. Up to this point, Gordon has missed 57 of a possible 82 games going into week 3 of the NFL season. It has been proven up to this point that Gordon will miss more games than he will play and has subsequently underachieve due to his bad habits.

As per usual, whenever he makes a mistake on the field, another team is prepared to ignore the obvious and give another opportunity. A professor or mentors honest feedback is just as important as the work itself. Chances are you can pick out a couple of things in all of your students work that needs improving. Forget the grades, the sun will still rise and everything will be okay, just consider doing things a little differently. Next time your students hand something in, grab your trusty red pen and dive in. Evaluate why you are so afraid of giving your students honest feedback.

Critique sessions are apart of art classes; for example I take a photography class here and each week the professor picks apart our photos in a constructive way. More of what happens in art classes down the hallway, should also be happening in the classroom. Why is the news focusing on political parties when it comes to a rape allegation and not on the act itself?

In the past two weeks, Brett Michael Kavanaugh, a lawyer for the U. Circuit Court in Washington D. Watching and reading the major news networks talk about this has consisted more of political statements rather than a focus on what truly happened. These politicians include both democrats and republicans alike, notably including President Donald Trump. Ford, who bravely comes forward, need to be heard, but they need to be believed. Meanwhile, President Trump apologized to his nominee that he has to go through this inconvenience. Kavanaugh said he has no recollection of the alleged events.

Trump has been through his own series of sexual misconduct allegations during the presidential debates for the election, but he was still voted into office. Trump believes that these two women coming forward is a political move, like the women who came forward during his election process in The difference here is that Trump wanted to make sure women knew he had the power because of his celebrity status.

However, rape is rape, whether it be to ensure your power with your position, or just because you feel like it. This type of power and control to push women to have a sexual interaction with you is still rape or sexual misconduct. If all of this is still not enough, Deborah Ramirez who attended Yale University with Kavanaugh, also came forward on Sept. Ramirez accused Kavanaugh of drunkenly exposing himself at a dorm party, thrusting his penis in her face and forcing her to touch it without her consent as she pushed him away, according to the New Yorker. But still, President Trump believes these women are making these allegations solely for the gain of the democratic party.

Ford has been keeping this traumatic incident to herself these past 40 years and now her whole experience is suddenly under a microscope for the Trump administration and the republican party to analyze and dismiss. Ford is still facing retaliation, although Ramirez coming forward changed the way the republican party is handling the situation. Both Kavanaugh and Ford will be testifying on Sept. With the timing of the allegations, both parties are skeptical.

If Kavanaugh wins, republicans will ruin the advancement of rape culture. This verdict would potentially be sending the message that if the president and a Supreme Court Justice were not convicted for their sexual crimes, then anyone else could get away with them too. If voted that Kavanaugh did not assault both women, rape culture will go backward in history and it will be even harder to hold rapists accountable for their actions in the future.

If Ford wins, then the democratic party has an increased chance of winning over the House of Representatives. Ford and Ramirez coming forward will hopefully change rape culture for the better, but I think we will continue having a problem with rape as long as our government officials still consider it political. On average, there are , victims age 12 or older of rape and sexual assault each year in the United States.

Of the sexual violence crimes not reported to police from , the victims male and female gave the following reasons for not reporting:. To register, go to:. He sits in the Student Center behind tall stacks of old records and hangs up jerseys that catch the attention of any passersby. Students who meet Chuck Blue tend to find those same qualities in him.

Blue was born in Budapest, Hungary in When he was about 5 years old, he and his parents escaped Hungary during Soviet military occupation and lived in Austria as Hungarian refugees. In Austria, he learned to speak German. Two years later, he and his parents moved to the U.

Not only did Blue need to learn two languages in the span of two years, but he had to quickly adjust to the culture. So because of the way I looked and because my demeanor at the time was very Germanic-looking, I was perceived as being a kraut or a Nazi or whatever I also had an accent at the time. I very quickly dropped the accent; I learned how to speak the language really quickly — out of necessity. I was winning spelling bees within a year after coming to the country. One of the reasons Blue keeps coming back. In addition to being a vendor, Blue plays in a band and sells his own original music.

I would say that your politeness-level and gentility has always stayed the same… you guys are good people here. In the past several years, the listening medium that many people predicted would become extinct has made a huge comeback. To be honest, it still surprises me. I do recordings and I do not think the quality of vinyls is better than CDs, personally. But I would say if I spoke to nine out of 10 students, they would say the opposite.

This distaste for current popular music is not just Blue's effort to glorify the classics, but rather a judgement based on his musical expertise. I listen for subtleties. In high school, he played jazz, blues and rock. In addition to playing the piano, he plays the flute and the harmonica.

Student Center and online. Many dedicated musicians work with companies to promote and sell their albums. Blue, however, never has. I always did everything. I was always an independent He owes this partly to a transcendent mindset that he has been experiencing lately. I feel divine, you know? Really, really be stubborn in what you want. Like, really be stubborn. And I always tell my kids now: No, you can be selfish.

You can be very, very selfish for what you want in life. Get it for yourself. Last Friday night, Sept. Just before the opening at 8 p. Nerves aside, Shipton was excited for the activities set up for the students to enjoy. The fair was set up with separate booths housing a different psychic and their specialty. The students had options of visiting a booth for astrology, palm reading, archangels, astrodice,. The games included giant Jenga and a bean bag toss, but most students were seen carrying around little bamboo plants that they were able to make. Each little glass container was filled with colorful water beads to make each plant a unique new dorm decoration for students.

Raised on the Registry

A magician was also making rounds to entertain the waiting students with his card tricks. Students were excitedly chatting with friends, snacking on the desserts provided and trying to peek behind the curtains of the booths. Some students, like sophomore criminal justice major Lindsey Downey, had an idea of where she wished to visit first. Others attended the event just to see what the fair was like such as a freshman civil engineering major Steven Gomes. Gomes also expressed his hesitancy about the readings.

It was interesting, there were definitely some truths that were thrown in there. The turnout was high and a lot of people had fun with set-up activities. Even though the Sleeping Giant State Park remains closed indefinitely for restoration, there are other places where you can enjoy the autumn scenery. Be sure to bring your own water and towel or blanket to do yoga on. Seeking more of a nature walk than a hike? Look no further than Farmington Canal Heritage Trail. Its largest trail spans nearly 50 miles and offers spots for fishing, biking and of course, hiking. As the name implies, you may see some of the canal while traveling through this former railroad.

Hamden This local park is only a twenty minute drive from school, making it a popular alternative to the Sleeping Giant. It stretches across New Haven, Woodbridge and Hamden, and offers 21 miles of hiking trails. While on their hike, visitors can see about square miles from different locations along the trails.

It offers one trail that is 1. The park features two waterfalls, one of them being 80 feet tall, making it one of the tallest in the state, according to newenglandfalls. Another interesting factor of this trail is that it is accessible to the public year-round. Although the National Football League and the rock group have not officially announced the information yet, insiders at Us Weekly have said that Maroon 5 has accepted the offer to perform at the halftime show.

The game is taking place in Atlanta on Sunday, Feb. The series of ten episodes will begin streaming on Oct.

Ongoing Economic Consequences

The series will follow these siblings as they revisit the horrors that took place during their childhood. Naugatuck State Forest Beacon Rd. The forest also has scenic views of the Naugatuck River and other bodies of water. The park covers acres of land and the hiking trails that are open year-round. The park has acres of land that include ponds, trails and woodlands. East Haddam Yes, an actual castle resides in this park — and it was the private residence of the actor best known for his portrayal of Sherlock Holmes, William Gillette. Also during the interview, the Irwins brought in a few wild animals that included a rainbow boa, baby ostrich and a kangaroo.

Bell, dressed in black skinny jeans and a tribal looking shirt, began his set with a selection of some of his latest musical offerings. That recent material was one of the biggest surprises of the evening. The year-old is a far more active musician than what his public persona suggests. He is touring to promote new music, trying to connect to his audience with new sounds and more mature songs. While that may be stagnating to a year-old still trying to find his professional footing, Bell managed to fill a college town nightclub on a Friday night, all without having a hit song in over a decade.

That in and of itself is impressive and almost unheard of. And maybe that was for good reason. John Mayer-esque, breezy and nonchalant, the five or so songs he recited before the finale were uneventful. They were pleasant, and Bell is by no means a bad musician. His guitar playing remains as agile and ever and his voice continues to.

But more talented than the next dive bar cover artist? Drake Bell is by no means the only musician, or even celebrity who faces a similar plight. They are doomed to strictly be a nostalgia act. At the age of 14, Lewis A. Upon his release, Lewis was made a ward of the state and placed in foster care because his Dad said he could not manage him. At the age of 18, he no longer qualified for foster care and was on his own.

Upon release from foster care, Lewis contacted Isabella D. When Human Rights Watch first interviewed Lewis, he was just 18 years old and had spent nearly nine months homeless in Kalamazoo, Michigan. He survived the previous winter by living in an abandoned building. The voucher, through Michigan Rehabilitation Services, helped with the rent, but it took months to find an apartment that would 1 accept the voucher and 2 rent to a registered sex offender.

As the voucher ran out they had to apply for an extension to get more time to look for housing. Finally in August , Lewis moved into his own apartment. He also enrolled in an adult program and was working towards getting his GED. Lewis was supposed to spend Thanksgiving with Isabella and her family, but he decided to spend the weekend with his father. Immediately after the holiday, Lewis was arrested for vandalizing a cemetery with some older men.

In December , Lewis pled guilty to the vandalism charge and has since served his time. But he still sits in jail. As a registered sex offender, Lewis cannot be released from jail until he has a permanent address. Lewis cannot live in public assisted housing because he is a registered sex offender. Isabella has tried to help get Lewis shelter and made referrals to shelters and other agencies. She recently contacted agencies that assist individuals with mental disabilities and was told that all referrals must come from the community mental health center.

The community mental health center will not consider making a referral until it can conduct intake, i. Isabella and the other teacher still visit Lewis every week in jail. Even though Michigan law does not subject juveniles adjudicated as young as Lewis to public notification, it is very difficult for him to live day-to-day. Essentially, these restrictions ban registrants from passing through certain areas of the city. Interviewees reported having to map out routes before traveling anywhere.

For example, Blake G. Blake was required to register as a sex offender in the new state. The county where Blake and his family moved to also had stringent residency and zoning restrictions. I can be arrested if I am walking anywhere near a school or park. There are also strict restrictions on the presence of registrants near bus stops. Bus stops are plentiful and not well-defined.

In rural areas, school bus stops are not marked or labeled and are often at the end of a driveway or any designated location where the school bus picks up a child. In Orange County, Florida, where the law prohibits a registered sex offender from residing within 2, feet of a school bus stop, day care center, park, or school, researchers mapped residential parcels of land and found that Because they live with their parents or other adult caregivers, children and very young adults have little control over where they live.

States differ as to which offenses trigger registration, and state systems do a very poor job of working together to ensure registrants who travel are treated fairly. For example, Elijah B. When he moved to Texas, he transferred his registration from Flint, Michigan to Houston. A few years later, Elijah met his wife. Both were working and they lived together in a new apartment.

Elijah explained to Human Rights Watch,. However, all too often state registration systems treat individuals convicted of sexual offenses in other states differently from individuals convicted of the same offenses within the state. However, Alabama law would require a Florida resident who committed the same crime to register as a sex offender if he moves to Alabama.

Children can find their access to education curtailed even before they begin registering. Many children convicted of sexual offenses are expelled from public school. Crimes committed on school grounds can have immediate consequences in many states. For example, in Delaware, if police find probable cause to believe a child committed a crime at school, the student must be immediately suspended and referred to alternative services. Among the youth offender registrants whose cases were examined for this report, a majority Others had difficulties in school because of the public nature of their registration status.

They taped them all over the school. By then it was too late and I was terrified everyone would find out I was a registered sex offender. I dropped out but later got my GED. Several individuals we spoke with believe this has negatively affected their college admissions. The most commonly reported consequence of registration for adult sex offenders is difficulty finding and maintaining employment. Individuals we interviewed said that their registration status for offenses committed as children decades ago continues to limit their job opportunities. Certain institutions, including public schools, child care centers, and nursing homes, are legally required to investigate and obtain criminal histories of all applicants for professional or certified licensed positions.

Some states implement blanket laws to prevent registered sex offenders from obtaining certain types of employment or volunteer positions. Maya also spent nearly four years at a juvenile prison. Being part of the juvenile justice system, made me determined to prove that with determination, love, and a little support, productive citizens can emerge. Many girls in there were forced into prostitution by a parent. Upon release from prison, Maya persevered and overcame the barriers inherent in being on the registry to graduate from high school, obtain a Bachelor of Arts degree in both social work and comparative religion, and earn a Masters in Social Work MSW degree.

Despite being 16 years removed from her only arrest and despite having been taken off the registry, the stigma remains. Maya is hopeful that she will one day complete an internship, become a licensed social worker, and realize her dream of helping homeless individuals. I accumulate about 20 W-2 forms at the end of each year. I have to support my wife and kids.

I estimate that between January to April I have applied for positions. Many states require sex offenders to pay a one-time initial registration fee. A registrant must keep the registration current in each jurisdiction where the offender resides, is an employee, or is a student, by appearing in-person at least once a year. Certain fees and costs related to registration can be assessed at each appearance. States often impose additional costs on registrants, some of which are imposed on all persons convicted of offenses of a particular severity such as all felons in the state.

It would be hard for an individual who works a full-time job to be able to manage these types of fees and the demands of registering in general. He spent 27 years and 8 months in prison, primarily at Angola State Penitentiary. He was released from prison at the age of 44, after the Supreme Court ruled in Graham v. Florida that the sentence of life without parole was unconstitutional for juveniles convicted of non-homicide offenses.

James was required to register as a sex offender within three days of release from prison. He was also required to:. Most jobs would not pay you within two weeks of starting the job. It would be difficult for an individual who was on the outside with a decent job to scrape together these fees. Oklahoma takes a public health approach to sex offenders in the juvenile justice system that could serve as a model for other states considering alternative approaches to youth sex offender registration.

While Oklahoma does not currently take the same approach to youth offenders sentenced in the criminal court system, there is no reason in principle why it could not do so. Most youth sex offenders in Oklahoma are treated differently than adults. The system includes the following features:. Public Notification— The adult registry in Oklahoma is public and fully accessible online. The juvenile registry is confidential and only accessible by law enforcement officials. Offenses— Children registering based on a criminal conviction in adult court are subject to the same automatic offense-based registration system that applies to adults.

Children adjudicated delinquent of a sex offense, however, can be placed on the registry only after an individualized assessment of the risk they may pose. Expiration— Juvenile registration expires at age A child can be rolled over to the adult registry, but this requires a separate petition, hearing, and judicial determination. In Oklahoma, before a child found guilty in the juvenile system of a registerable sex offense is placed on the registry, his or her case must be evaluated using a three-step process.

First, the local prosecutor must make a determination that the child in question, even after completing treatment, still poses a significant risk of reoffending sexually. If so, the prosecutor files an application to have the court require the child to register as a sex offender upon release from custody. The filing of this application triggers phase two of the process, in which the child must undergo evaluation by a panel of two mental health professionals who prepare a report for the court recommending for or against registration.

Over the first 10 years that the sex offender registry existed in Oklahoma, only 10 youth offenders adjudicated delinquent were required to register, according to the Oklahoma Office of Juvenile Affairs. Federal law mandates that any state that does not meet the requirements of the Adam Walsh Act will receive up to a 10 percent reduction in federal grant money.

Nearly all jurisdictions have made failure to register a criminal offense punishable by fines and imprisonment. In many states, the sentence for a single offense of failure to register can be as long as 10 years in prison, and in two states—Louisiana and Nebraska—the sentence for a second failure-to-register conviction is 20 years imprisonment. Our research suggests that most youth offenders do not understand the many rules incumbent on registrants or the full implications of failing to comply with all of the rules.

In many cases, they do not even know that a serious criminal sentence is hanging over their heads should they fail to comply with every particular. As noted above, registrants begin their sex offender registration after release from detention, jail, or prison. Over 84 percent of the youth offenders we interviewed were still age 17 or younger at release.

They had paperwork from when I was 13 where I acknowledged that I understood that condition. To date, no study has examined failure to register from the perspective of individuals placed on the registry for offenses committed as children. Our interviews indicate that it may be particularly difficult for youth offenders to meet all registration requirements, for reasons linked to their youth and immaturity as well as the onerous nature of the requirements.

Studies of the failure-to-register offense among all offenders adults and children emphasize the difficulty of maintaining registration, noting the sheer volume of obligations and the constant vigilance required of registrants to stay in compliance. Many of the young people interviewed for this report who were convicted of failure to register were unable to afford registration fees, obtain a proper residence, or otherwise comply with requirements to obtain identification.

All states require individuals on the sex offender registry to carry some form of additional identification, and they can be asked, by law enforcement, to produce this identification at any time. Human Rights Watch met year-old Jayden C. Identification card that must be updated yearly and carried at all times by registered sex offenders in Oklahoma. Registrants are required to renew the license or ID card annually.

As a teenager living in Oklahoma, Nathaniel H. The clerk threw my license and told me to get out of the store. A woman standing behind me looked at my license as she picked it up off the floor. She handed it back to me with a look of disgust on her face. The serious sentences imposed on youth offenders for failure—to-register crimes appear disproportionate to the offenses, given that their youth and immaturity can make it exceptionally difficult for them to comply with registration laws.

It is unclear whether prosecutions for failure to register are having the desired effect of deterring subsequent sex crimes. Four published studies have examined the relationship between failure to register and sex-offense recidivism. Human Rights Watch was not able to find any studies on the relationship between failure to register and sex offense recidivism among youth sex offenders, but there is no reason to think one would find a stronger correlation in the youth offender population than in the overall offender population.

Given that existing research finds very low rates of sex offense recidivism among youth sex offenders, neither public safety nor crime deterrence appears to justify their incarceration for failure-to-register crimes. Even if one thinks registration is appropriate for some youth sex offenders, there is strong reason to question whether offenders under age 18 should be subjected to criminal prosecution for failure to register. At times, the juvenile or adult court proceedings that result in convictions for sexual offenses are marred by due process failings, prompting additional questions about the fairness of subjecting youth sex offenders to registration.

Children accused of any type of offense not only sexual offenses are particularly vulnerable during criminal proceedings. Children and adolescents are less mature than adults and have less life experience on which to draw, and this makes understanding the court process, the charges, and the consequences of a plea more difficult.

A photograph of Ethan A. At the age of 10, Ethan and his younger brother went to live with their father and stepmother in Amarillo. In , when Ethan was 11, his step-mother accused Ethan of molesting his 3-month-old sister and of touching the genitals of his younger brother. He was sentenced to serve six years and four months in Texas juvenile detention. After three years, Ethan was released on juvenile probation to the custody of his mother and required to register as a sex offender.

He had his first photograph taken for the registry in , at the age of As a teenager, Ethan was anxious to get a job so he could help his mother pay the bills. Even though Ethan was not a convicted felon, employers refused to hire him when he disclosed that he was on the sex offender registry. Finally things started to look up for Ethan. In , at age 22, he had a girlfriend and got a job working in an auto body shop.

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A few months after getting fired, in August , Ethan went for his yearly registration verification and was arrested on the spot for failing to report that he had been fired from his job. He sat for one year in jail awaiting trial. On August 5, , he was found guilty of failure to register and sentenced to three years in prison. In Texas and most states, registered sex offenders may be prosecuted if they fail to register, fail to verify registration information, or fail to provide notice of change of address or place of employment. Ethan was immediately arrested, convicted, and sentenced to three years in prison for this felony offense.

While in prison, Ethan has persevered. Upon release, Ethan will be placed on the highest level of adult parole for 10 years and required to resume his sex offender registration until In several cases investigated by Human Rights Watch, children often with little legal advice agreed to plead guilty to a sex offense without being informed of the registration requirements they would be subject to for years or decades thereafter.

For example, in , Mason T. After completing two years of therapy and probation, at the age of 14, Mason was informed that he had to register as a sex offender for 10 years. This news shocked both Mason and his mother.

The family was not told before entering the plea that Mason would be required to register as a sex offender. It is common practice in the US criminal justice system for attorneys and judges to sometimes use the threat of trial and long sentences to obtain a plea. If you say guilty you can go home on probation. The vast majority of youth sex offenders interviewed for this report pled guilty people, or The federal Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act SORNA expanded the number of youth sex offenders subject to registration by adding more nonviolent, lower-risk offenders to the federal registry.

SORNA also opened the door to the retroactive application of registration requirements to individuals convicted of sex offenses whether in juvenile or criminal court proceedings before the registration laws went into effect. Of the youth sex offenders interviewed for this report, 57 19 percent were subject to registration requirements imposed retroactively after their convictions. Some of these individuals had completed the terms of their parole and juvenile or adult probation, started families, and made lives for themselves. Due to the changes wrought by SORNA, others who had shown no risk of reoffending were now considered high-risk offenders because of a crime that occurred decades ago.

Some pled guilty to crimes and lived for a time without being subject to registration, only to learn much later that they had agreed to terms which now trigger harsh consequences. While records of juvenile delinquency are normally kept confidential, the retroactive application of SORNA requires individuals who previously pled to acts of juvenile delinquency— and who did so with the expectation that their adjudication would remain confidential— to publicly expose that information to friends, family, colleagues, and neighbors.

Some, had they known that they would years later be subject to registration requirements, might not have pled to the charges at all. As of , all but one appellate district in the United States allowed for the retroactive application of registration requirements to past convictions or adjudications. The one exception is the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. In the case of U. Juvenile Male , the court found that the retroactive application of SORNA to juvenile adjudications was unconstitutional. Juveniles adjudicated delinquent of sexual offenses are less protected from accepting a plea without being informed of registration requirements than children subject to the jurisdiction of adult courts.

Many courts have found that a defendant charged as an adult must know the collateral consequences of entering a plea to a criminal offense, such as registration, community notification, and residency requirements. International human rights law requires all governments to protect people within their jurisdiction from violence, including by deterring crimes such as sex offenses. Thus, in these six countries there are often no public notification or residency requirements and the inclusion of youth offenders is heavily circumscribed. The important duty of government to protect persons from harm has undoubtedly inspired the creation of sex offender registration schemes in the United States.

However, the onerous nature of the schemes and their specific application to youth offenders raise serious questions under human rights law. International law recognizes that juvenile offenders require special protection. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ICCPR , to which the United States became a party in , specifically acknowledges the need for special treatment of children in the criminal justice system and emphasizes the importance of their rehabilitation.


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Those in favor of youth sex offender registration often argue that the requirements—whether registration alone, or registration in combination with community notification and residency restrictions—are distinguishable from criminal punishment. Since registration is imposed only after a child completes his or her criminal sentence, they argue, it is at most a collateral consequence of punishment and as such is distinct from the original punishment. In the United States, many sex offender registration laws at both the state and federal levels treat youth offenders no differently from adults.

This is true of youth offenders subject to the jurisdiction of adult courts, but also of many children adjudicated delinquent in juvenile courts. When children and adults are subjected to exactly the same procedures and laws, the United States violates provisions of the ICCPR requiring special measures for children. In order to comply with its obligations under international human rights law, the United States should abolish sex offender registration schemes that are not specifically tailored to address the situation of youth offenders.

Recent cases in the US Supreme Court raise serious questions under US constitutional law about any scheme in which the differences between youth and adults are not taken into account. We see no justification for taking a different course here. Other human rights of children threatened by youth sex offender registration include the rights to protection from harm, family unity, education, health and well-being, and freedom of movement. None of these rights are absolute. But laws that infringe upon these rights must be necessary to serve a legitimate public interest, the relationship between the interest and the means chosen to advance it must be a close one, and the laws must be the least restrictive possible.

Some of the most fundamental rights of children and adults who are former youth offenders are put at risk by sex offender registration laws. Therefore, the infringements on rights imposed by these laws appear to be disproportionate to their purpose. The US is not alone in implementing registration systems for sex offenders. At least six other countries Australia, Canada, France, Ireland, South Africa, United Kingdom have sex offender registries, either for perpetrators of all sex offenses or only offenses in which the victim was a child, and others are contemplating establishing registries.

Sex offender registries in other countries have come under judicial challenge, and courts have found the more circumscribed registration requirements compatible with protection for human rights, only in so far as each scheme strikes the appropriate balance between the rights of the individual on a register and the public safety interest that the registries are designed to meet.

The US sex offender registration schemes fail to meet these standards. The criteria the European Court set out was relied on by the UK Supreme Court to strike down a provision in UK law requiring lifetime registration for a person convicted of an offense carrying a sentence of 30 months or more imprisonment. Two categories of children suffer harm as a result of sexual offenses and the sex offender registration laws described in this report. The most obvious category is the child victims of sexual assault, who have rights to protection from harm and to redress for the harms they have suffered.

However, youth sex offenders are also entitled to protection from harm, including from vigilante violence. Each of these treaties prohibits cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment [] and includes requirements that the state act to prevent acts of violence directed at anyone—adults and children—committed by private actors. Protection from violence, moreover, is an essential component in securing other human rights including the right to physical integrity.

Additionally, the harassment and violence some youth offenders endure as a result of state sex offender registries and related policies may end up depriving them of their right to live together with their family, or to an education on equal terms with their peers. Such harassment and violence may also have serious mental health consequences and infringe upon the right of youth to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health.


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  • Even in instances in which registration is not explicitly combined with community notification requirements, the reproduction of such records by public and private actors in a variety of ways and locations—particularly in our electronic age—makes it nearly impossible for the heightened privacy rights of children to be respected. Some youth offenders in the US have challenged mandatory registration and community notification laws on the basis that those laws open their records to public view, whereas existing law has generally permitted children to keep their juvenile records confidential or have them expunged.

    The right to family unity finds articulation in numerous human rights treaties. Cases outlined in this report raise questions about whether government is striking the right balance even in these cases. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that everyone has a right to education, to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of their country, and to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being, including housing. When children are unable to attend school because they are banned from going near or entering school buildings, or when other restrictions on their residency or freedom of movement make it impossible for them to maintain a home and thus the stability to attend school, their access to education is curtailed.

    State and local laws often ban a registered youth offender from working anywhere near children—so registered teens cannot seek jobs at the local mall, fast food restaurants, camps, and recreational centers. We are deeply grateful to the Soros Open Society Foundation for their generous support and encouragement. We further thank the Defender Association of Philadelphia for providing office space and support for Nicole Pittman. Brian Root, quantitative analyst in the US Program, helped analyze the data and assess the impact of the laws on registrants.

    Antonio Ginatta, US Program advocacy director, helped provide a consistent and clear message for the report. Sex Offender Laws in the US. Marc Chaffin, expert on child sexual offending behavior and professor of pediatrics at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, provided continuous encouragement and support and reviewed and commented on parts of the manuscript. Consultants Alisa Klein and Joan Tabachnick; staff at the Juvenile Division of the Ohio Public Defender; and staff at the Juvenile Law Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania lent support and expertise and made specific suggestions for the recommendations section of the report.

    We are deeply grateful to all the individuals directly impacted by sex offender registration and notification laws and their families who shared their experiences for this report. Many of these individuals courageously shared their deeply personal and often traumatic experiences of growing up on the registry for the first time, despite the fear of repercussions or further stigmatization.

    We are tremendously appreciative of the assistance, encouragement, and warm hospitality from the following organizations, including, but not limited to: Special thanks to the courageous experts who have been spent decades providing valuable, robust, and rigorous scientific data on child sexual offending behavior and the effect of US legal sexual offender policies on youth. These include, but are not limited to: Robert Prentky, professor and director of graduate training in forensic psychology at Farleigh Dickinson University; Dr.

    Timothy Foley, forensic evaluator and psychologist; Franklin E. This report is dedicated to the memory of Mary Duval, who passed away after battling cancer on June 19, Mary was a dedicated mother and activist, and CEO of www. She successfully fought to have her teenage son removed from the registry for a consensual relationship with a peer. Mary left behind a lasting legacy. Through her tireless efforts and dedication, she helped bring the complex issue of US sex offender laws to national prominence and inspired the passage of laws to protect children charged with certain offenses from a lifetime on the sex offender registry.

    However, this phrase is used in the remainder of this report because juvenile court judgments are not considered convictions. These data are compiled by the National Crime Victimization Survey, in which a representative sample of US households reports on non-fatal crimes irrespective of whether they are reported to police. Marc Chaffin, March 5, The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

    The Wetterling Act was passed in response to the unsolved abduction of Jacob Wetterling while he was riding his bicycle in a small town in Minnesota. Pam Lychner was a year-old woman who was attacked by a previously convicted sexual offender in Houston, Texas. See generally Jonathon Simon, Governing through Crime: Oxford University Press, addressing the importation of crime control into school administration ; Aaron Kupchik , Judging Juveniles: The superpredator myth has been discredited.

    Juvenile crime rates began a steady decline around , reaching low levels not seen since the late s. The 38 jurisdictions are: For children adjudicated delinquent in juvenile court, Illinois, Massachusetts, Ohio, Oregon, and Michigan limit the information available to the public.

    See generally In re Wentworth , N. H statement of Rep. Regretfully, lawmakers misinformed their peers that individuals convicted of sex offenses are more serious offenders because of their propensity to reoffend. The Amie Zyla provision was named after Amie Zyla of Waukesha, Wisconsin, who was 8 years old when she was sexually assaulted and threatened by year-old Joshua Wade.

    Wade was adjudicated delinquent in juvenile court, and was therefore required under Wisconsin law to register with local police as a sex offender. Less than a decade later, while still being monitored as a sex offender, Wade was arrested for assaulting and enticing children to his apartment. Wade was never convicted of these charges. However, Amie Zyla and her parents were successful in lobbying the state legislature to take some additional action against children accused of sexual misconduct. Amie and her parents then took their cause to Washington, DC. Zyla to speak behind closed doors, without any expert testimony, before members of Congress, advocating for extending the Adam Walsh Act to children by placing them on public sex offender registries.

    When is enough going to be enough? The tier classifications have implications in three areas: SORNA sorts offenders into three tiers to determine the duration of their registration obligations. Tier III includes any sex offender whose offense is punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year and is comparable to or more severe than aggravated sexual abuse or sexual abuse as described in sections and of Title Tier III offenders must register for life. Tier II includes offenders convicted of sex offenses against minors. Individuals in Tier II must register for 25 years.

    Each jurisdiction has until July 27, to substantially comply with the requirements of SORNA or lose part of its federal funding. Sex Offender Laws in the US , vol. At least 13 states required individuals to register for urinating in public in two states, only if a child was present. Thirty-two states registered flashers and streakers. No fewer than 29 states required registration for teenagers who had consensual sex with another teenager. Rearrest Rates of State Prisoners Released in , by most serious offense for which released and charge at rearrest, http: Petersen and Susan M.

    University of Chicago Press, , pp. How are They Related? Bell and Robert J. Simmons , U. Laurence Steinberg et al. Zimring, An American travesty: Legal responses to adolescent sexual offending Chicago: University of Chicago Press Legal responses to adolescent sexual offending citing M.

    A Journal of Research and Treatment, vol. Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, ; M. Working with sexually aggressive youth and children with sexual behavior problems Holyoke, MA: Journal of Research and Treatment, vol. University of Chicago Press, A Journal of Research and Treatment , vol. Karl Hanson and Monique T. The 40 percent recidivism rate applies to prison inmates released in who returned to prison within three years due to a new criminal conviction or for violating conditions of release.

    It is a public-private partnership, funded in part by Congress and in part by the private sector, which has operated under Congressional authority as the national resource center and clearinghouse on missing and exploited children. Croix maintain separate sex offender registries, bringing the total number of registries surveyed to NCMEC has conducted 13 sex offender register surveys since , and they were performed quarterly until Since then, they have been done twice each year. Demographic information provided here is not generalizable to a larger population; it merely represents the experiences of the individuals whose cases were examined in this report.

    In , the conviction requiring the young girl to register was reversed when the Utah Supreme Court concluded that while the children violated this particular law as it is worded, the law was not intended to apply to such cases. State , Ga. The Guilford Press, The NSOPW works like a search engine by pulling information that is placed by states and local jurisdictions on their own public websites; it does not independently verify that information.

    In December , Pennsylvania enacted SORNA and included children on the registry for the first time; however, the new law does not require children to be posted on the web. Smith, author of Breaking the Code of Silence: The avowed priority of the US juvenile justice system in theory if not always in practice has, historically, been rehabilitation rather than retribution. All United States Code references are current as of December The Supplemental Guidelines for Sex Offender Registration and Notification give jurisdictions full discretion over whether they will post information about juveniles adjudicated delinquent of sex offenses on their public registry website.

    Supplemental Guidelines, supra note 6 at Levenson , and Timothy C. No reduction in sex crime rates was detected; in fact, follow-up revealed that the number of charges steadily increased each year. Furthermore, when the distances to places where children commonly congregate were considered along with other risk factors, proximity was not a significant predictor of recidivism among registrants.

    Zandbergen and Timothy C. Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics No. Preliminary data from Broward County, Florida illustrated that cities with larger buffer zones had significantly lower numbers of compliant dwellings. In Broward County Commissioners appointed a task force in an effort to research and anticipate the possible outcomes of increased residency restrictions. The task force, made up of various stakeholders in the community, held differing views and perspectives. However, they agreed on two issues: Doe , U. Verniero , F. Have we gone too far in our response to adolescent sexual abusers and children with sexual behavior problems?

    Zimring and et al. Human Rights Watch visited the Washington State Sex Offender Registry in December to verify the difficulty in determining how old a registrant was at the time of conviction or adjudication. Similar difficulty was experienced on other state registries, such as the Ohio State Sex Offender Registry, available at: Researchers Levenson and Tewskbury found several common themes, including: The study examined the effects of a Kentucky law KRS Events requiring permission include but are not limited to: Louis, Missouri, July 18, Assessing the Collateral Consequences of a Public Policy.

    Sexual intercourse with a person under age 13 if the actor is more than two years older is categorized as first-degree sexual assault. Under Virginia law, a student can be placed in an alternative education program if the student is found guilty or not innocent of an offense not related to homicide, weapons or firearms possession, felonious assault, criminal sexual assault, possession of controlled substances, arson, burglary, robbery, criminal street gang activity or recruitment, consumption of alcohol, or any crime that resulted in or could have resulted in injury to another.

    Most state bills introduced in the and sessions dealt with jobs that would bring the offender into contact with children. Recent legislation also sought to prevent sex offenders from being able to obtain or retain certain professional licenses. According to a survey conducted by the Council for State Governments CSG , in at least four states—Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Utah—legislators acted to require the revocation or suspension of teaching credentials upon a conviction of certain sexual offenses.

    California passed a law CA Senate Bill to deny or revoke dental licenses and massage therapy licenses to convicted sex offenders. Individuals who were under the age of 14 at the time of their adjudication are not required to register. Anyone currently on the registry must petition the court for removal if not automatically removed. Marc Chaffin, October 12, Is it associated with recidivism? A Journal of Research and Treatment. Jimenez, and Rebecca L. Juvenile Male, S.

    Commonwealth of Kentucky , U. See also Taylor v. State , S. But see Maxwell v. July 1, declining to extend Padilla to sex offender registration. Similarly, the Committee Against Torture CAT requires state parties to exercise due diligence in investigating, prosecuting, and punishing perpetrators—including private actors—of rape and sexual assault. Human Rights Committee, General Comment no. Article 6 5 prohibits imposing the death penalty on persons who committed crimes while under the age of Article 10 2 , subparagraph b, mandates the separation of accused children from adults and the swift adjudication of their cases.

    Article 14 1 provides an exception for cases involving children to the general requirement that judgments be made public. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Engel, , p. Florida , S. Alabama , S. North Carolina , S. Australia , Human Rights Committee, 50th Sess. Although the Committee was addressing freedom of movement, the criteria it enunciated apply for all protected rights.

    In France, Law no. New Zealand and Samoa are both actively considering whether to establish national sex offender registers. United Kingdom , No. United Kingdom , Application No. Under the UK law, an offender is required to provide basic information to the police who can monitor where they reside, but there is no general public access to the police-held information. In this case the applicant had been cautioned for child abduction, and that caution remained on her record for life. Twelve years after the caution, the applicant lost an offer of employment as a health worker when she disclosed the caution as part of a criminal-record check by the prospective employer.

    In doing so, Lord Phillips noted that no evidence had been placed before the court that demonstrated that it was not possible to identify from among those convicted of serious offences, at any stage in their lives, some at least who posed no significant risk of reoffending. In light of the ensuing uncertainty, he considered that the imposition of notification requirements for life was not proportionate.

    The Court is of the view that similar considerations apply in the context of a system for retaining and disclosing criminal record information to prospective employers. In another case, the High Court ruled that the failure to allow an offender to make representations before information could be disclosed by police about them under the Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme CSOD violated human rights law. The police had a duty to afford the offender an opportunity to make representations before disclosure was made.

    Without the offender being afforded such an opportunity, the court reasoned, the decision maker might not have all the information necessary to conduct the balancing exercise that he is required to perform justly and fairly. See Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, , article Juvenile Male , F.

    One court specified that the issue of confidentiality was immaterial in that particular jurisdiction, mainly because disclosure of juvenile information under its community notification law was limited to law enforcement. However, the court stopped short of finding community notification an impermissible violation of this particularized liberty interest for all juveniles.

    Child-on-Child Sexual Violence in the United States

    Williams , F. Protection of the Family, the right to marriage and equality of the spouses, art. City of East Cleveland , U. Skip to main content. A Policy Based on a Misconception Sexual assault is a significant problem in the United States and takes a huge toll on survivors, including children.

    Long-Term Impact on Youth Sex Offenders and Their Families When first adopted, registration laws neither required nor prohibited inclusion of youth sex offenders. Onerous Restrictions Some restrictions imposed on the lives of registrants are so onerous and labyrinthine, it is surprising that registrants actually manage to adhere to them.

    Accountability That Fits The harm that people convicted of sex offenses as children have caused to victims of sexual assault must be acknowledged, and justice often requires punishment. At the time of our research: Ten of the states subjected children found guilty in both juvenile and criminal court proceedings to sex offender registration laws, and had done so since the mids Arizona, Delaware, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, Texas, South Carolina, and Washington.

    Several of the states had no minimum age of juvenile jurisdiction and had put children as young as eight on their registries. The three states with the largest number of registered sex offenders adults and children were California , , Texas 68, , and Florida 57, Marc Chaffin, who has studied the specific impacts on child victims of child-on-child sexual offenses, The overarching summary of the research is this—there are a substantial number of victims who recover and are not highly affected beyond a short time.

    There is a middle group with moderate effects. And there is a group with severe and often lasting effects. She stated that it, [B]ecame clear the boys could not be left alone together. I wish I could explain what it is like to be the parent of both a child who has been abusing and a child who has been victimized. The feelings are so mixed and confusing. I love both my sons, but at times I felt guilty and ashamed that I cared for Troy even though he had hurt Ted. History of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws in the US In part as a result of high-profile cases of sexual abuse in the late s and s, state and federal policymakers passed an array of registration, community notification, and residency restriction laws for individuals convicted of sex offenses.

    Community notification refers to systems by which information about registrants is transmitted to the public or portions of the public. Children Are Different [C]hildren are constitutionally different from adults. A Distinct and Varied Set of Behaviors The image of the adult sexual predator is a poor fit for the vast majority of children who commit sexual offenses. Recidivism of Youth Sex Offenders As noted above, there is no scientific foundation for the belief that children who commit sexual offenses pose a danger of future sexual predation.

    Who are Youth Sex Offender Registrants? Age Throughout the United States, children as young as nine years old who are adjudicated delinquent may be subject to sex offender registration laws. Offenses Most jurisdictions mandate registration of children convicted of a wide range of sex offenses in adult court. In Kansas, any child convicted of a sex offense in adult court is subject to the same registration requirements as adults. Juveniles adjudicated delinquent for a sex offense in Kansas are also subject to registration for a long list of offenses including rape, indecent liberties with a child, criminal sodomy, indecent solicitation of a child, aggravated incest, electronic solicitation, and unlawful sexual relations.

    In , in Orange County, California, three boys were convicted of sexually assaulting a year-old girl and videotaping the incident. The crime occurred when one of the boys was 16 and two were 17 years old. All three are subject to sex offender registration requirements. After completing two years of juvenile probation and therapy, he had to register for ten years. He was finally removed from the registry at age She was charged as an adult, and as of was facing registration for life. The crimes occurred between October and December , when the offender was between 11 and 16 years old, and involved multiple rapes of a six- or seven-year old girl and a six-year-old boy.

    The young girl, impregnated by her younger boyfriend at the age of 13, was found guilty of violating a state law that prohibits sex with someone under age Her year-old boyfriend was found guilty of violating the same law for engaging in sexual activity with her, as she was also a child under the age of 14 at the time. In , Stella A. Her photograph, address, and identifying information were publicly available for neighbors and the public to see.

    Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, , p. Related Content May 1, News Release. Registration of Youth Offenders in Practice V. Life on the Registry VI. Most Viewed December 14, Dispatches. December 6, News Release. December 13, Dispatches. December 13, News Release.